Design Efficiency Analysis Towards Product Improvement for Eco-Friendly Using DFMA Method

Mohd Nizam Sudin*, Ngeow Sook Chin, Shamsul Anuar Shamsudin, Mohd Asri Yusuff
Centre for Advanced Research on Energy, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM), Malaysia

© Sudin et al.; Licensee Bentham Open

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (, which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

Correspondence: Address correspondence to this author at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM)76100 Durain Tunggal Melaka Malaysia; Tel: +606-234 6806; Fax:606-234 6884; E-mail:


This paper presents the comparative study of design efficiency of two different brands of products, performing the same function using the Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) method. The study aims to compare the products on the relative design efficiency. The DFMA method was used as it is a well-established technique for improving the efficiency of the product leading to minimizing production costs. It also shortens product development time by reducing the number of components in a product. The study used two different brands of dry iron as a case study. The result shows that the percentage of the design efficiency of dry iron A is 8.82%, whereas it is 10.34% of dry iron B. Thus, the dry iron B is much better as compared to A in term of its assembly operation and design efficiency. Therefore, the dry iron B is greener than dry iron A. Furthermore, a redesign of dry iron B was proposed and analyzed for the internal validation. The DFMA analysis result shows that the percentage of design efficiency of a new conceptual design of dry iron B increased to 18.08%. The application of the DFMA method to enhance the eco-friendliness of a product has been proven to be highly useful in design work.

Keywords: Design efficiency, DFMA, Dry iron, Eco-friendly.